Different types of photography: Aerial, Daring feats/ adventure, artistic, black and white, documentary, time-lapse, paronamic, etc.
Equipments: Lens, Camera, Accessories, Stand
Aperture: The aperture is simply an opening in which the person see through using the camera. Like the camera's "eye".
Shutter speed: Basically the time in which the shutter is open.
ISO Speed: ISO sensitivity expresses the speed of photographic negative materials.
Metering:Metering is a process which involves the camera taking a light level reading from the scene and selecting the appropriate combination of aperture and shutter speed to set the required exposure value for the picture.
White balance:White balance (WB) is the process of removing unrealistic color casts, so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white in your photo.
Photography Composition: The main point of the photography should not be in the middle, it should be at 2/3 point of the picture instead. That is the Rule of Thirds. The second one should be The Golden Section rule, where it is proven that some parts of the photograph attract attention more easily than the rest of the picture. The third one is taking pictures of linear elements such as road, waterways and fences diagonally. They are perceived to be more dynamic than compared to horizontally placed ones.
Photography techniques: High Speed photography, Tilt-Shift Photography, Black and White Photography, Motion Blur photography, Infrared photography, and many more.
Focus:Basically it is the camera getting a fix on a certain object you want to take a picture of and makes sure it is not blurry.
This concludes the post. I hope I have included all the information needed.